e-mail: iaekrak@archeo.pan.krakow.pl



IgoLomia Commune


The multi-culture settlement site Zofipole, Site 1, is located on the left bank of Vistula, on the edge of loess river terrace, 28 km east of Cracow. In 1946-1949, major archaeological excavations were carried out, resulting in discovery of thirty-five Roman Period pottery kilns, mainly from the 2nd half of the 3rd century and the beginning of the 4th century AD. Four have been preserved in an archaeological reserve reserve in situ. The reserve is listed in the directory „Museums of the World”, München 1995.

In a grant project (H. Dobrzanska, halina@archeo.pan.krakow.pl), supported by the Committee of Scientific Research, the Zofipole site has been subjected to multidisciplinary research, comprising geophysical survey, excavations, paleobotanical studies, and laboratory analyses of pottery and glass samples. In 1996, following the geophysical survey (T. Herbich), more than twenty new kilns were localized. Two were selected for detailed examination in 1997. These exceptionally well preserved features from a single complex with a nearby pit.



Zofipole pottery kiln 56/97 and vents of kiln 57/97 during excavations   




Zofipole. Pottery kiln 56/97



 All pottery kilns at Zofipole are circular structures almost completely submerged in the loess bed. They had two chambers and a vertical air draft. Ducts connected the kilns and nearby pit. The construction was well suited for mass production of gray pottery during the Late Roman period.


Table (fine) pottery

Kitchen (rough) pottery


Fifty-seven kilns discovered at Zofipole make the site the biggest Central and Eastern European production center for wheel-made pottery north of the Roman Empire.

Prepared by dr. Halina Dobrzańska